Palynofacies and Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Geli Khana Formation (Middle Triassic), from Selected Sections in Northern Iraq


Two exploration wells were selected near Mosul city (Ain Zala-29, Jabal Kand-
1) and one outcrop section in Kani Masi- Zakho, near Sararo village in Iraqi
Kurdistan Region. This study performed into two phases, study palynofacies and
hydrocarbon generation potential of the Middle Triassic Geli Khana Formation.
Fifty one slides are prepared in this study for the assessment of palynofacies
types. Three palynofacies were tentatively recognized, The first palynofacies
(P.F.1) is diagnostic of the Geli Khana Formation in the outcrop Ora section
from distance 1-43 m and well Jabal Kand-1 from drilling depth 4900 to 4697
and 4532 to 4369m; the second palynofacies (P.F.2) also appeared in Ora section
from 44-280 m and in well Jabal Kand-1 from drilling depth 4697 to 4532m,
while palynofacies three (P.F.3) is found in both wells, in Jabal Kand-1 from
drilling depth 4369-4112 m but in Ain Zala -29 from drilling depth 4900-4650m,
and in Ora section from 280-499m. They were distal suboxic–anoxic basin, to
distal dysoxic–anoxic shelf, shelf to basin transition Passage from shelf to basin
in time. X-ray diffraction technique, showed that the ratio of clay mineral (illite)
increase upward of the Geli Khana Formation (illite increase basin ward) that
could confirm the environmental aspect.
Pyrolysis analyses showed that the organic matter type in well Jabal Kand-1 is
mostly types II-III, and III, while in both outcrop and well Ain Zala-29 it is type
IV. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ranged between 0.27-1.41 in well Jabal Kand-
1, 0.27-0.41 in well Ain Zala-29- and very low TOC in outcrop. In both Jabal
Kand-1 and the outcrop vitrinite reflectance (R0%) is more than 1.4, Thermal
alteration index (TAI) 3.3-3.7 and 4, and low fluorescence intensity are
indicators for mature stage (dry gas window), for all the studied samples, and
hence mainly gas generation could have been performed from Geli Khana
Formation in mainly Jabal Kand locality.thumbnail of wuria -thesis

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Mahmud was born and raised in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. He has seven years of experience in the field of higher education and research in Iraq and USA. Mahmud had worked as a teaching assistant at Salahaddin University in 2011; after his graduation in late 2010 which he was graduated as the second best student among his peers. In 2013, Mahmud received an exemplary scholarship to study his master’s degree in the United States of America. The scholarship program was granted by Exxon-Mobil Oil Company and organized by the Institute of International Education. Studying abroad in the United States of America provided a great opportunity for Mahmud for the first time to live closely with people from different racial backgrounds. In August 2016, Mahmud returned to his home country per the terms and conditions of the scholarship exchange program. Currently, he is working as lecturer at Salahaddin University-Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Mahmud is a member of several local and international scientific societies since 2012; such as Kurdistan Geological syndicate, Geological Society of America, and American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

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